Modern History of Himachal Pradesh - Himachal Pradesh General Studies

  • Guru Nanak visited Kangra, Jawalamukhi, Kullu, Sirmaur, Kullu and Lahaul-Spiti.
  • Fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev sent Bhai Kaliana to hill states to collect charity for the construction of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple).

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  • Sixth Sikh Guru Hargovind Singh started the construction of Kiratpur on the land given gifted to him by the Raja of Kehlur (present day Bilaspur).
  • Ninth Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur took land from the Raja of Kehlur and constructed the village Makhol which later came to be known as Anandpur Sahib.

Guru Gobind Sahib:
  • There arises a conflict between Guru Gobind Singh and Raja Bhim Chand of Kehlur with regard to white elephant which was gifted to Guru Gobind Singh by Rani Ratan Rai of Assam.
  • Guru Gobind Singh spent five years of his life in Paonta Sahib where he created tenth Granth (Guru Granth Sahib). 
  • In 1686 A.D., Battle of Bhangani was fought between Guru Gobind Singh and the combined forces of Raja Bhim Chand of Kehlur, Fatehshah of Gharwal and Raja Harichand of Hindur (present day Nalagarh), in which Guru Gobind Singh emerged victorious. In this battle, Raja Harichand of Hindur was killed by Guru Gobind Singh with his arrow and ceased all his property.
  • Later, Guru Gobind Singh returned the ceased property to the successor of Raja Harichand of Hindur and as a result Guru Gobind Singh and Raja of Kehlur became good friends.
  • When Mughals tried to attack the territory of Kehlur, Raja Bhim Chand of Kehlur asked for the help of Guru Gobind Singh against Mughals and as a result Guru Gobind Singh beat Mughals in a battle at Nadaun (present day in Hamirpur).
  • Guru Gobind Singh visited Mandi and Kullu during the reign of Raja Sidh Sen of Mandi.
  • On April 13, 1699, Guru Gobind Singh laid the foundation of Khalsa Panth at Anandpur Sahib (Makhowal) with 80 thousands soldiers.
  • In 1708 A.D., Guru Gobind died at the place called Naded in Maharashtra.
  • After the death of Banda Singh Bahadur, Sikhs divided themselves into 12 misles.  

Kangra fort, Sansar Chand, Gorkhas & Maharaja Ranjit Singh:

  • Raja Ghamand Chand defeated Jassa Singh Ramgarhia.
  • Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was the first Sikh to attack the Kangra hills.
  • After the death of Ghamand Chand, Sansar Chand II in 1782 A.D. took back Kangra fort from the Mughals with the help of Jai Singh Kanhaiya.
  • In 1783 A.D. Jai Singh Kanhaiya took over Kangra fort under his control & denied to give it to Sansar Chand. But eventually in 1785 A.D. Jai Singh Kanhaiya returned Kangra fort to Sansar Chand.

Sansar Chand:

  • Sansar Chand II was the most powerful king of Kangra. He became Raja of Kangra in 1775 AD. 
  • In 1786 AD he defeated the Raja of Chamba in 'Nerti Shahpur" battle. 
  • 1786 A.D. to 1805 A.D. was the golden period for Sansar Chand. 
  • In 1787 A.D. he took over the Kangra fort. 
  • Sansar Chand attacked Kehlur (Bilaspur) in 1794 A.D. This attack became the starting point of his downfall. 
  • The Raja of Kehlur through "Alliance of Hill rulers" invited Gorkha Amar Singh Thapa to defeat Raja Sansar Chand.

  • Gurkha Commander Amar Singh Thapa has conquered 30 hill states of Kumaon, Garhwal, Sirmaur and Shimla up to 1804 AD. 
  • In 1806 A.D. Amar Singh Thapa defeated Sansar Chand at Mahalmorio (Hamirpur). 
  • Sansar Chand took shelter in the Kangra Fort, where he stayed for 4 years. 
  • Amar Singh Thapa had for 4 years Kangra Fort sealed from all sides. 
  • In 1809 A.D. Sansar Chand visited Jawalamukhi & asked for the help of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. "Jawalamukhi treaty" was signed between them in 1809 A.D.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh:

  • In 1809 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Gorkhas, defeated Amar Singh Thapa & pushed them to the east of Satluj. 
  • Sansar Chand gave 66 villages & Kangra fort to Maharaja Ranjit Singh in exchange. 
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh made Desa Singh Majithia the Nazim (Governor) of Kangra fort & Kangra in 1809 A.D. 
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh took over Haripur (Guler), Nurpur & Jaswan in 1813 AD. He defeated Datarpur (1818) & Kutlahar (1825). 
  • In the year 1823 A.D., after the death of Sansar Chand, Anirudh Chand was allowed to seat on the throne in lieu of 1 lakh rupees nazrana (gift). Anirudh Singh denied Ranjit Singh proposal regarding marrying his daughter with the son of Raja of Jammu Dhyan Singh and asked for asylum from British. 
  • In 1839 A.D. under the leadership of Venchura one army was sent to Mandi while the other was sent to Kullu. 
  • After Maharaja Ranjit Singh death in 1839 A.D. the downfall of Sikhs started. 
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